Friday, 12 October 2018

Book on ECHR and General International Law

Professor Anne van Aaken (University of St. Gallen) and ECtHR Judge Julia Motoc (also connected to the University of Bucharest) have published the edited volume 'The European Convention on Human Rights and General International Law' in the European Society of International Law Series, with Oxford University Press. The book features both academics and judges at the European Court of Human Rights. This is the abstract:

'The European Court of Human Rights is one of the main players in interpreting international human rights law where issues of general international law arise. While developing its own jurisprudence for the protection of human rights in the European context, it remains embedded in the developments of general international law. However, because the Court does not always follow general international law closely and develops its own doctrines, which are, in turn, influential for national courts as well as other international courts and tribunals, a feedback loop of influence occurs.

This book explores the interaction, including the problems arising in the context of human rights, between the European Convention on Human Rights and general international law. It contributes to ongoing debates on the fragmentation and convergence of international law from the perspective of international judges as well as academics. Some of the chapters suggest reconciling methods and convergence while others stress the danger of fragmentation. The focus is on specific topics which have posed special problems, namely sources, interpretation, jurisdiction, state responsibility and immunity.'

Thursday, 4 October 2018

Handbook on Implementation of ECtHR Judgments

The European Implementation Network has published a new handbook entitled 'Implementation of Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights - A Handbook for NGOs, injured parties and their legal advisers'. The handbook is a great 'how-to" guide for civil society organisations interested in the post-judgment implementation phase. It is freely available online. This is what EIN says about it:

"For many NGOs wanting to support implementation of ECtHR judgments, the Strasbourg judgment execution process presents daunting challenges. Although there is accessible information about the outlines of the process and the general role of NGOs, engaging effectively requires much more: a detailed understanding how the process works, (for example, how cases are categorised, the differing procedures under which they may be treated, the different stages of the process), and a clear grasp of what to say and when to say it. Without this understanding, NGO submissions can lack impact, even for such basic reasons as including the wrong type of information or the information being submitted too late. 

EIN’s new handbook is an important step towards demystifying the process. Prepared with the benefit of input from experienced NGOs during implementation training workshops and with detailed technical advice by the Department for the Execution of Judgments, it provides comprehensive guidance for NGOs, injured parties and their legal advisers. It sets out both a clear description of the Council of Europe’s supervision procedure, and a detailed step-by-step guide to how NGOs and injured parties can engage with this procedure most effectively.

There is wide concern that in many Council of Europe member States implementation of ECtHR judgments is all too often inadequate. NGOs have a vital role to play in improving the quality of implementation. But, in part because of the “black box” that has existed around the judgment execution process, NGOs have intervened in only a small fraction of cases. EIN hopes that this handbook will enable a significant improvement in both the quantity and quality of submissions by NGOs and thereby make a real contribution to improving implementation of ECtHR judgments."


Wednesday, 5 September 2018

New Book on Strategies of Compliance and the European Court

Andreas von Staden (University of Hamburg) has published the new book Strategies of Compliance with the European Court of Human Rights. Rational Choice Within Normative Constraints, in the Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights Series. This is the abstract: 

'In Strategies of Compliance with the European Court of Human Rights, Andreas von Staden looks at the nature of human rights challenges in two enduring liberal democracies—Germany and the United Kingdom. Employing an ambitious data set that covers the compliance status of all European Court of Human Rights judgments rendered until 2015, von Staden presents a cross-national overview of compliance that illustrates a strong correlation between the quality of a country's democracy and the rate at which judgments have met compliance. Tracing the impact of violations in Germany and the United Kingdom specifically, he details how governments, legislators, and domestic judges responded to the court's demands for either financial compensation or changes to laws, policies, and practices.

Framing his analysis in the context of the long-standing international relations debate between rationalists who argue that actions are dictated by an actor's preferences and cost-benefit calculations, and constructivists, who emphasize the influence of norms on behavior, von Staden argues that the question of whether to comply with a judgment needs to be analyzed separately from the question of how to comply. According to von Staden, constructivist reasoning best explains why Germany and the United Kingdom are motivated to comply with the European Court of Human Rights judgments, while rationalist reasoning in most cases accounts for how these countries bring their laws, policies, and practices into sufficient compliance for their cases to be closed. When complying with adverse decisions while also exploiting all available options to minimize their domestic impact, liberal democracies are thus both norm-abiding and rational-instrumentalist at the same time—in other words, they choose their compliance strategies rationally within the normative constraint of having to comply with the Court's judgments.'

Friday, 24 August 2018

New ECHR Readings

Please find below a range of recent academic articles and publications about the European Convention and the European Court:

* My Utrecht colleague Janneke Gerards has just published (open access) the article 'Margin of Appreciation and Incrementalism in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights' in the Human Rights Law Review :

'Fundamental rights standards in Europe diverge as a result of differences in legal traditions, constitutional values and historical developments. The European Court of Human Rights therefore faces the challenge of having to balance the need for uniform and effective rights protection with respect for diversity. It is often thought that the famous margin of appreciation doctrine is the Court’s main tool in finding this balance. This article shows, however, that the Court’s application of the doctrine has made it into a rather empty rhetorical device. This appears to be different for the Court’s use of incrementalism, which increasingly appears to have replaced the margin of appreciation doctrine as an instrument to reconcile European protection of fundamental rights and national diversity. The article concludes by showing how the Court could further benefit from this strategy of incrementalism, while still maintaining a role for the margin of appreciation doctrine.'

* Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou, 'What is Law for the European Court of Human Rights?', Georgetown Journal of International Law, vol. 49.1 (Fall 2017) p. 89 ff.:

'This Article will suggest that judges of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) take into account both legal and non-legal considerations when deciding “hard” cases. This Article focuses on these legal considerations, emphasizing the legal, rather than the political, personality of the ECtHR. Legal considerations can be further divided into internal and external ones. The former originate from within the European Convention on Human Rights (Convention) system, such as the ECtHR case law or the law and practice of the Contracting Parties to the Convention. The latter are provisions borrowed from outside of the realm of the Convention, such as international treaties or laws and practices from nations outside of the Council of Europe. This Article will argue that reliance on internal, as opposed to external, sources can help minimize the challenges that the ECtHR is currently facing in regard to its legitimacy.'

* Lize Glas, 'Translating the Convention’s Fairness Standards to the European Court of Human Rights: An Exploration with a Case Study on Legal Aid and the Right to a Reasoned Judgment', European Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 10, no. 2 (2018):

'The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has clarified when domestic procedures are fair, but it remains unclear when the ECtHR’s own procedures are fair. Yet, clarifying the requirements of procedural fairness applicable to the ECtHR is important, especially in a context where doubts have been expressed about the fairness of some of the Strasbourg procedures. This article proposes that the fairness standards from the ECtHR’s case law, which apply to domestic authorities, can be applied to the Strasbourg Court. These standards must, however, be adapted to or ‘translated’ into the ECtHR’s context, because its context is so different from that of domestic authorities. This article, therefore, develops eleven principles of translation. The usefulness of the principles is tested by employing those principles to translate two fairness standards: the right to legal aid and the right to a reasoned judgment. Subsequently, the usefulness of the translated standards is evaluated by applying those translated standards to two aspects of the ECtHR’s practice: the granting of legal aid and single-judge decisions.'

Monday, 20 August 2018

My New Article on Squeezed Civic Space and Human Rights

I am happy to announce that my new article entitled 'Squeezing civic space: restrictions on civil society organizations and the linkages with human rights' has been published open access and is thus freely available to all in the International Journal of Human Rights. This is the abstract:

'In many countries civil society is under pressure. Collective citizens’ efforts, especially when they have political salience, seem to be regarded with increasing suspicion and even to be actively countered. Anti-NGO laws, arbitrary inspections, harassment, and criminalisation all strike at the roots of civic space. Is this part of a trend of ‘reverse transitions’, in which countries slide away from democracy? Or is this maybe an even wider shift, manifestations of which can also be observed in more established democracies? What are the possible causes of this shrinking or closing civic space, how does the closure manifest itself, and what are the linkages to human rights? This article will focus on anti-NGO measures as part of a broader global trend.'

Wednesday, 15 August 2018

Protocol 16, New Rules of Court and Website on Impact of the ECHR

It is the midst of Summer, but important times for the European Convention of Human Rights system. On 1 August, the new Protocol 16 entered into force for those state parties that have ratified it. This means the European Court will be able to now give advisory opinions upon request of the highest national courts and tribunals related to the interpretation or application of ECHR rights. Thus far, the following states have ratified: Albania, Armenia, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Lithuania, San Marino, Slovenia and Ukraine. As a consequence, the Court has also amended its Rules of Court as of 1 August, inserting provisions on Protocol 16 (the new rules 91 to 95) outlining how this should be implemented in practice.

Related to another aspect of implementation - impact of the Convention - the Council of Europe has launched a new website on this theme, geared towards the general public. This is what the website includes in the words of its makers:

"The Council of Europe has launched a new interactive website highlighting the positive impact of the European Convention on Human Rights across the continent.

The site illustrates how judgments from the European Court of Human Rights, and their implementation by national authorities, have affected people’s lives in many different ways across all 47 Council of Europe member states.

“The European Convention on Human Rights protects the basic rights of some 830 million people across the whole of Europe,” said Council of Europe Secretary General Thorbjørn Jagland.

“Focussing on a small proportion of the cases decided by the Strasbourg court, this new website clearly demonstrates what the convention system has achieved so far and the positive impact it continues to have on many people’s lives. I encourage all those who support human rights, democracy and the rule of law to make good use of it.”

The interactive website uses textual summaries, infographics and audiovisual materials to show how judgments from the European Court of Human Rights have helped to change policies and practices in Council of Europe member states and to improve the situation of individual applicants.

101 different case studies are presented by country and by topic, with separate sections explaining how the system works and the state of implementation of other key Council of Europe conventions.

The site is currently available in English, French and Turkish. A Russian-language version will be launched shortly.

The site will be updated and further developed on an on-going basis, depending on the funds available. The initial development and launch of the site cost €92,000, funded through voluntary contributions from the governments of Finland, Ireland and Norway."

Friday, 10 August 2018

Training on Implementation of Asylum and Migration Cases

The European Implementation Network has issued a call for applications for an interesting new thematic training in Strasbourg on 11 and 12 October. Please note: the deadline to apply is soon,  17 August. Staff of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is invited to participate in a thematic training seminar on advocating for full and effective implementation of judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR, ‘the Court’) in the field of asylum and migration. Please see the information of the organisers below: 

'The Court has, over the past years, developed a large body of case law on a range of issues relating to refugee and asylum policy, procedural requirements in the migration process, the reception conditions of migrants and asylum seekers, and their access to remedies in states parties to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). At the same time, advocating for the internationally recognised rights and freedoms of foreign nationals has become increasingly challenging in the face of a rise of populism across Europe, much of which has been fuelled by anti-immigration sentiment. It is therefore of paramount importance that asylum and immigration lawyers expand their strategies and develop new tools to uphold the rights of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees, including by more actively promoting the implementation of relevant ECtHR judgments.   

NGOs are accorded a critical role in the Council of Europe’s (CoE) process that underpins the supervision by the Committee of Ministers (CM) of the implementation of these judgments (known as the CM judgment execution process). This is made possible under Rule 9.2. of the Rules of the CM. However, there is little readily accessible information on how this process works and how NGOs can engage with it to maximise its effect, with the result that this powerful mechanism for implementing human rights is underutilised. 

The aims of the seminar are to equip NGOs to use the CM judgment execution process to support full and effective implementation of ECtHR judgments; and to share best practice on advocating for implementation of the Court’s judgments in the asylum and migration field at the national level.

Date and place of the seminar:
Date:                   Thursday, 11 – Friday, 12 October 2018
Place:                  Strasbourg, European Youth Centre (EYCS)
Arrival:                In the afternoon/evening of Wednesday, 10 October
Departure:          Friday, 12 October (afternoon at the earliest)

Seminar content:

The seminar will cover the following issues:
  • The CM execution process and the role of NGOs;
  • How to use Rule 9.2 submissions to advocate for effective implementation of the ECtHR’s asylum/migration case law at national level: case studies;
  • Rule 9.2 submissions: group exercises on developing general measures and/or responses to non-implementation. The session is aimed at helping participants who have not engaged with the CM judgment execution process to do so – acquiring knowledge and expertise from other participants.
  • Advocacy: EIN and Strasbourg-based advocacy; advocating for improved implementation structures at the national level.

Training methodology:
The seminar will combine:
  • Presentations by experts on how to engage effectively with the CM judgment execution process;
  • Sharing of learning by participants who have already engaged with implementation of ECtHR judgments, whether through the CM judgment execution process or at the domestic level;
  • Group exercises to draft a Rule 9.2 submission on a case pending before the CM.  

It is envisaged that case studies will address some of the following themes: 
  • Ill-treatment in law enforcement of migrants, including asylum seekers;
  • Access to territory and collective expulsions;
  • Forced returns, freedom from torture and the right to an effective remedy;
  • Unlawful detention of migrants, including asylum seekers; and
  • Asylum procedures, reception and detention conditions (Dublin returns).

Target audience:
Staff of NGOs working on, or planning to work on, implementation of ECtHR judgments relating to asylum and/or migration; independent lawyers supporting NGOs in these activities.

Criteria for selection of participants:
Participants will be selected on the basis of following criteria:
  • The impact resulting from full and effective implementation of any (leading) cases their organisation is supporting.
  • Any relevant experience the participant is able to share. The training methodology requires a number of participants with particular attributes – some with experience in different aspects of implementation, others with cases which will be particularly suitable for group exercises.
  • Participants will be limited to one per NGO and are required to have a good working knowledge of English. They must be present for the full duration of the seminar.

Travel and accommodation expenses:
EIN will cover the costs of participants’ travel, accommodation, food and visas. Guidelines on the funding procedure will be provided to those applicants selected to participate.

Application process:
Please complete the application form and return to Anne-Katrin Speck (a.speck at mdx.ac.uk), with a copy to Agnes Ciccarone (aciccarone at einnetwork.org) by Friday, 17 August 2018. Please also arrange for your organisation to send a letter supporting your application, confirming that you have a good working knowledge of English and can be present for the full duration of the seminar.

The results of the application review will be made known to applicants in the first week of September.'

Monday, 2 July 2018

New Judge in Respect of San Marino

Last week, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) elected a new judge to the European Court of Human Rights. Mr Gilberto Felici was elected as the new judge in respect of San Marino. His term shall start in September of this year and he will succeed current judge Kristina Pardalos. Mr Felici is currently both a judge and a lecturer. He is very familiar with another branch of the Council of Europe's work, as he was also a member of ECRI (the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance) since 2003.

Wednesday, 6 June 2018

My New Article on the European Court of Human Rights as a Norm-Broker

I am very happy to announce that my new article, co-authored with my good colleague and friend dr Michael Hamilton (University of East Anglia) has just been published in the Human Rights Law Review (Vol. 18, Issue 2, 2018, pp. 205-232). The article is entitled 'Human Rights Courts as Norm-Brokers'. This is the abstract:

'This article develops an understanding of human rights courts as ‘norm-brokers’. We regard ‘norm-brokering’ as an exegetic method of judicial reasoning, ultimately concerned with reason-giving and the quality of justification. It entails robust engagement with alternative norms raised in the course of human rights adjudication. Norm-brokering thus involves much more than the mere cataloguing of alternative norms—and, at a minimum, a methodical approach to the question of normative harmonization. We suggest that the process of norm-brokering contributes to ‘public reason’ by enhancing the intelligibility of judgments. This, in turn, helps confound legitimacy-based critiques of human rights courts. The argument is supported by an analysis of 10 years’ worth of European Court of Human Rights judgments, focusing on the ways in which norms from the Inter-American human rights system are relied upon (or not) by the Strasbourg Court.'

Tuesday, 5 June 2018

Summer School on Fundamental Rights in the EU and ECHR

The University of Bologna, King’s College London and the University of Strasbourg are co-organising a summer school “The Protection of Fundamental Rights in Europe” (Bertinoro, 24-29 June 2018). This 18th edition, is hosted in the Castle of Bertinoro (see photo), and it involves around 30 hours of lectures on the topic of the protection of fundamental rights in both the EU and ECHR systems. According to the organisers: 

'The Summer School aims to provide graduates, practictioners and young researchers (Ph.D. candidates) with an in depth background of the protection of fundamental rights at European level. The general courses are about the European Convention on Human Rights, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The single lectures tackle topics alike asylum and migration, national identites and EU law, relationship between the CJEU and the ECHR, EU external action, the margin of appreciation doctrine, commercial law and fundamental rights. 

Thanks to the support of the Fondazione Cassa dei Risparmi di Forli, selected participants are fees-waived and complimentary half-board accommodation for 5 nights is included.'

Further information and the call for application can be found here

Saturday, 26 May 2018

10 Years ECHR Blog

Today, exactly ten years ago, on 26 of May 2008, I started the ECHR Blog. The idea for the blog had come up in conversations with a few friends and colleagues, in which we noted that there was a gap in the, at the time, still newly emerging blogosphere. There were blogs on international law, on European law, on human rights, but none on the ECHR specifically. And thus I embarked that day on an endeavor of which I had no clue that I would still be at it a decade later. In the initial post, I expressed the hope that the blog could be a "portal to information on the European Court of Human Right and its judgments and decisions." 

I started to post on case-law, on new publications, political developments and academic events, all related to the European Convention on Human Rights and its Court. And after a few months, I heard - to my slight apprehension, to be honest - that not just fellow academics, but even some judges at the Court itself were reading the posts. Over these ten years, I have posted 956 posts (counting the current one) and the blog has attracted over 2.2 million pageviews from across the globe, including from states where human rights information is not always readily accessible or even simply blocked. 

These ten years of keeping up and developing the blog would not have been possible without the help of countless people. First off, the pioneer legal bloggers that inspired me, the other law-related blogs that helped me link up to a wider community, the guest bloggers who were willing to share their insights on Strasbourg developments, and the many, many readers who fed this blog with news, publications, event announcements and much more. It is a truism, but without my readers, I would not have been able to keep this up. A big thank you to all of you - your exhortations, kind messages, information and simply interest and visits to the blog, have helped to keep it going. For, I can reveal, that there is no army of academic slaves working invisibly to run the blog (as several people asked over the years) - I have always been doing the postings myself. From the days of being a beginning lecturer up to my current position, this has of course become increasingly challenging, because of many other obligations - and as some avid readers must have noticed the frequency has decreased over the years, keeping pace with an increasingly demanding job. But it is still a joy to do and it has intensely enriched my academic life in many ways, making new friends along the road!

Please keep sending me your ECHR-related information and feel free to reach out to me with your remarks on the blog. Your input is the vital lifeline of the ECHR Blog!

Wednesday, 16 May 2018

Guest Blog Commentary on Ne Bis in Idem

It is my pleasure to introduce a guest commentary by my Utrecht University colleague dr Bas van Bockel. He has written a commentary on the interesting recent inadmissibility decision in Krombach v France, that relates to the ne bis in idem principle of Article 4 of Protocol 7 ECHR and to the Strasbourg-Luxembourg relation.

Krombach Returns to Strasbourg
Bas van Bockel, Utrecht University

After the death of 15-year-old Kalinka Bamberski in Germany in 1982, a criminal investigation was launched with the plaintiff dr. Krombach, the girl’s stepfather, as the suspect. The investigation and in particular the handling of the forensic aspects was botched, and the public prosecutor discontinued the prosecution of Krombach for lack of evidence. Convinced that his daughter was sexually abused and killed by her stepfather, Kalinka’s father mr. Bamberski attempted to have the decision by the German authorities ending the prosecution reversed. When this failed, he adhered the French authorities because of the victim’s French nationality. Krombach was tried and sentenced to 15 years imprinsonment in absentia by the Paris Court of Assizes. Krombach did not appear in court in France for fear of being arrested and his trial was conducted under the French “contempt procedure” (jugement par contumace) under which an absent subject is legally prevented from defending him- or herself. This led to an earlier judgment before the ECtHR matter (ECHR 13 February 2001, no. 29731/96), in which the ECtHR ruled in Krombach’s found an infringement of both the right to a fair trial (art. 6 ECHR) and the right to an appeal (art. 2 Protocol 7 ECHR).

This did not alter the fact that Krombach was still wanted in France, whilst he was living freely in Germany. Bamberski attempted in vain for Krombach to be surrendered to the French authorities. In the end, he resolved to make arrangements for him to be kidnapped and taken to France by force. In 2009 Krombach was found bound gagged and wounded in the streets of a French city near the German border after the police were alerted to his presence by an anonymous caller. He was arrested, (re-)tried and sentenced again by a French court, this time for for causing bodily harm resulting in the death of Kalinka Bamberski. In the procedure before the ECtHR that would follow, Krombach complained that his conviction violated the ne bis in idem principle of art. 4 Protocol no. 7 to the ECHR, in view of the fact that his previous prosecution in Germany (and not his earlier conviction in absentia in France) was finally discontinued for lack of evidence.

The Court held the application to be admissible because the ne bis in idem principle of Article 4 of Protocol 7 ECHR only applies to situations within one and the same state party. Although France and Germany are both EU Member States and a broader, “transnational” ne bis in idem rule in the form of Article 54 of the Convention on the Implementation of the Schengen Agreement is in force within the EU, this provision has no bearing on the scope of application of Article 4 of Protocol 7 ECHR. The Court finds that it lacks competence to apply rules contained in EU law or to rule on a possible breach of those rules, except where a breach of a rule of EU law incidentally also breaches a right from the Convention. It is therefore up to the member states and in particular the national judiciary to interpret and apply national law in the light of the applicable provisions of Union law, and the Court is not in a position to rule on a potential breach of EU law. The application is declared inadmissible. In itself the decision does not come as a surprise given the wording of Article 4 of Protocol 7 ECHR. Although the question of the international (non-)application of that provision was debated around the time that the 7th Protocol was drafted and adopted (1984), that debate has now been put to rest because the wording of the provision excludes the possibility of international application of the ne bis in idem provision contained in it.

The decision raises interest because of what the Court says about its own role in relation to European Union law. In the decision, the Court sets out a seemingly straightforward division of tasks under which the national judiciary interprets and applies national law in the light of any relevant EU law. According to it, the ECtHR “merely” establishes the compatibility of the result with ECHR law, without prejudice to any national or EU arrangement in the field of human rights. This could be interpreted as further clarifying where the line between EU and ECHR law is drawn as far as the Court is concerned, while at the same time making it clear that the Court does not intend to overstep that line by applying Convention standards (directly) to EU law.  

No doubt, this part of the Court’s decision will be interpreted as a reaction to the position taken by the CJEU in Opinion 2/13 (CJEU 18 December 2014, ECLI:EU:C:2014:2454) on the compatibility of the draft accession agreement of the EU to the ECHR. In that Opinion, which has been widely criticised (see, amongst others, here, here, and here), the CJEU essentially held that accession to the ECHR could threaten the autonomy of EU law. The Grand Chamber reacted to Opinion 2/13 in Avotiņš v. Latvia (ECtHR 23 May 2016, nr. 17502/07, ECLI:CE:ECHR:2018:0220DEC006752114), in which it confirmed that the so-called “Bosphorus presumption”, named after the 2005 judgment in Bosphorus Hava Yolları Turizm ve Ticaret Anonim Şirketi v. Ireland, still stands firmly, although by no means unconditionally.

The interesting thing about Krombach II is that the question raised in it is not one along the usual lines (of whether any part of EU law is capable of violating ECHR standards), but rather a question of whether a fundamental right from EU law (i.e. Article 54 CISA) is capable of determining the scope and interpretation of a Convention right.  It is therefore interesting to note that this appears to raise some of the same sensitivities. One possible reason for this could be that if the Court were to interpret Convention rights like Article 4 of Protocol 7 ECHR in accordance with provisions from EU law like Article 54 CISA in situations in which EU member states are involved, this would effectively allow the Court to rule on (parts of) EU law indirectly, though the interpretation and application of Convention rights. Whether the CJEU was actually concerned about such a “backdoor issue” or not, the Court’s decision in Krombach II makes it very clear that this will not happen. In doing so, the Court also makes it clear that it intends to conduct itself in the most diplomatic and respectful way possible vis-à-vis the Luxemburg court, in the very sensitive area between the Convention and EU law.  

Friday, 11 May 2018

New Book on Great Debates and the ECHR

Fiona de Londras (University of Birmingham) and Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou (University of Liverpool) have written a new book entitled Great Debates on the European Convention on Human Rights. The book was published with Macmillan Publishers and was written for higher education teaching. This is the summary:

'This engaging textbook provides a critical analysis of the legitimacy and effectiveness of the European Convention on Human Rights and its practical operation. In a succinct way, the book investigates questions around the legitimacy of how the European Court of Human Rights develops its law, the obligations of states to comply with its judgments, the adequacy of the Convention in securing basic goods, and the effectiveness of the system in protecting rights ‘in the real world’. It assesses some under-explored areas of the Convention that are often overlooked. Presenting a number of debates about the legitimacy and effectiveness of the system in a provocative and critical style, this book encourages debate, discussion, and self-reflection on how, when and why the Convention protects human rights in Europe.

An ideal text for Law students at English and Welsh universities and higher education institutions taking a module in The European Convention on Human Rights (LLB or LLM level), and for GDL/CPE students and those taking the postgraduate LPC training course.' 

Tuesday, 1 May 2018

Case-Law Guide on Article 18 ECHR

The Court has put a new case-law guide online on its website. The new guide deals with Article 18 ECHR which concerns limitation on the use of restrictions on rights. The article provides: 

“The restrictions permitted under [the] Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed.”

It has become topical in a number of cases of the past few years, after having been "dormant" for much of its existence. Since the article deals with the "misapplication" of power by state authorities( according to the Convention's travaux préparatoires), it could be seen as a litmus test for deep rule of law problems. Thus, the increased jurisprudential attention to this provision is telling in itself. See, for example, the Grand Chamber judgment in Merabishvili v Georgia of November 2017 in which the Court found a violation of Article 18.

The Case-law Guides series reflect the Court’s major judgments, organised by Convention article. The reviews of the case-law are regularly updated and translated into other languages.

Wednesday, 25 April 2018

New Judge in Respect of Montenegro

Yesterday, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe elected the new judge in respect of Montenegro at the European Court of Human Rights. With a large majority (101 of 160 votes cast), Ms Ivana Jelić was elected. She will succeed her predecessor Nebojša Vučinić within three months.

The new judge comes from academia and was until now associate professor of the Faculty of Law and Faculty of Political Science of the University of Montenegro. She has wide experience in the international human rights system, most notably as a member (since 2015) and Vice President (since 2017) of the United Nations Human Rights Committee, which supervises the ICCPR. From the perspective of coherence of international human rights law, this election may therefore offer opportunities. I wish her all the best in her new position!

Thursday, 19 April 2018

Guest Post: Commentary on the Final Copenhagen Declaration

Now that the final Copenhagen Declaration has been published, it is my pleasure to publish a guest post by the editors of the earlier commentary series of the draft Declaration, Janneke Gerards and Sarah Lambrecht:


The Final Copenhagen Declaration: Fundamentally Improved With a Few Remaining Caveats

By Janneke Gerards (professor of fundamental rights law, Utrecht University) and Sarah Lambrecht (researcher, Research Group Government and Law, UAntwerp and law clerk at the Belgian Constitutional Court) 

At the High Level Conference meeting in Copenhagen on 12 and 13 April 2018 under the Danish Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Copenhagen Declaration was adopted. This Declaration was much anticipated, as the draft version issued on 5 February 2018 by the Danish Government was heavily criticised. Academics (on EJIL:Talk!, Strasbourg Observers and ECHR Blog, UK Strasbourg Spotlight and Verfassungsblog), NGOs (see also the Director of ICJ, the Executive Director of Open Society Justice Initiative and the Danish Helsinki-Committee of Human Rights), national human rights institutions, members of national parliaments in PACE and civil servants expressed grave concern about the harm the draft Copenhagen Declaration could do to the Court’s independence and authority, about its misconstruction of the Court’s jurisdiction and role (especially when defining the Convention system’s subsidiary nature), its potential to undermine the universality of human rights, and its objective of installing new channels of ‘dialogue’, which could have the effect of exposing the Court to undue political pressure by national governments. Overall, most commentators agreed that the initial draft, if adopted as such, would damage the Convention’s system of protection of human rights in Europe as a whole. 

It has now turned out that much of this criticism was shared by a large number of States. Prior to its adoption, intense negotiations and redrafting took place in the Drafting Group on the draft Copenhagen Declaration. The States critical of the initial draft succeeded in fundamentally improving it, deleting or watering down the most criticised features of the initial draft and changing its overall tone. In fact, a text comparison makes clear that the Declaration has been almost entirely rewritten. It appears that the Danish Government’s fundamental criticism and its reform agenda were not received with much enthusiasm across Europe. On the contrary, the States Parties visibly have chosen not to endorse this reform agenda. Illustrative is the insistence of the Luxembourg Minister of Justice that the adopted Copenhagen Declaration would not receive the support of Luxembourg if it could be read or even perceived as a limit that politicians would like to impose on the power and authority of the Court. 

The Prism of Subsidiarity

One of the most striking differences between the initial draft and the final version of the Declaration concerns the notion of subsidiarity. The initial draft viewed the Court’s role exclusively through the prism of subsidiarity. This in fact was a skewed prism, as one of the authors demonstrated in this comment series: the draft did not realistically reflect the foundations of the Convention system, the meaning of the notion of subsidiarity and the actual use of the margin of appreciation doctrine by the Court. This misapprehension also extended to the Courts’ more recently developed process-based approach, which is closely related to these long-established doctrines.

In rewriting the initial draft, references in the initial draft to the principle of subsidiarity and the margin of appreciation have been removed (paras. 4, 8, 9, 12, 22, 26 and 29 of the initial draft) or reworded (paras. 5, 10, 13, 14, 17, 23, 24, 25, 27 and 28 of the initial draft) in the final Copenhagen Declaration (paras. 4, 7, 8, 10, 13, 28 and 31). The end result constitutes a complete overhaul. Instead of instructing the Court on how it should apply the margin of appreciation and when it should avoid intervening, the final Declaration reiterates the Court’s jurisprudence on the principle of subsidiarity and the margin of appreciation (para. 28). Controversial paragraphs on how the Court should approach asylum and immigration cases have been deleted (paras. 25 and 26). The final Declaration also no longer ‘welcomes and encourages that subsidiarity is increasingly playing an influential role in the Court’s case law and as an organising principle for the Convention system’ (para. 12 of the initial draft). Rather, it ‘reiterates that strengthening the principle of subsidiarity is not intended to limit or weaken human rights protection, but to underline the responsibility of national authorities to guarantee the rights and freedoms set out in the Convention’ (para. 10 of the Copenhagen Declaration).

The resulting paragraphs mainly reflect the European consensus on subsidiarity that is already expressed in earlier declarations. However, the upshot is that it does do little more than this. In a time where we are witnessing a clear regression of the rule of law and of the effective enforceability of human rights in an increasing number of States Parties, the Copenhagen Declaration missed an important opportunity to give a strong signal to the States. These national developments have been reduced to a problem of national implementation of the Convention (see e.g. para. 12) and of execution of the Court’s judgments (see e.g. para. 20) and to a caseload challenge for the Court (see e.g. para. 45). In addition, although the onus is now more clearly on the States to implement the Court’s judgments, as Ed Bates has suggested, it can only be ‘hoped that the States will now put their full energy, effort and attention into backing the Convention system going forward’.

The Need for Dialogue and the Risk of Undue Political Pressure

Another much criticised aspect of the draft Declaration was the way it gave shape to the need for dialogue between the States Parties and the Court. The draft proposed that: (1) States Parties should be able to indicate their support for the referral of a Chamber case to the Grand Chamber (paras. 35 and 38), (2) States Parties should increase their third party interventions, especially in important and principled cases before the Grand Chamber  (paras. 34 and 39-40), (3) States Parties should discuss the general development of areas of the Court’s case law of particular interest to them and, if appropriate, adopt texts expressing their general views (paras. 32-33 and 41), (4) States Parties should hold a series of informal meetings to discuss relevant developments in the jurisprudence of the Court (para. 42).

By doing so, the draft text went far beyond the conventional mechanisms for dialogue and in fact aimed to ‘rebalance’ the power between (the executive branch of) the States Parties and the European Court of Human Rights, as was detailed by one of the authors in this comment series as well as by the Court itself in its opinion on the draft Copenhagen Declaration (paras. 15-16). When contemplating new ways for national governments to interact with the Court, States Parties have to be very careful about the potential repercussions on the Court’s independence. In no way should such proposals be a pretext for institutionalising ways for national governments to exert undue political pressure on the Court. 

For this reason, it is good news that the most controversial new way for national governments to interact with the Court has been deleted. The final Declaration no longer ‘encourages States Parties to discuss the general development of areas of the Court’s case law of particular interest to them and, if appropriate, adopt texts expressing their general views’ (para. 41 of the initial draft). Also, there will no longer be ‘a series of informal meetings of States Parties before the end of 2019’ to discuss ‘relevant developments in the jurisprudence of the Court’ organised and hosted by the Danish Chairmanship (para. 42 of the initial draft). Instead, the Danish Chairmanship will ‘organise and host, before the end of 2018, an informal meeting of the States Parties and other stakeholders, as a follow up to the 2017 High-Level Expert Conference in Kokkedal, where general developments in the jurisprudence of the Court can be discussed, with respect for the independence of the Court and the binding character of its judgments’ (para. 41).

At the same time, some problematic proposals have been retained. The final Declaration still invites ‘the Court to adapt its procedures to make it possible for other States Parties to indicate their support for the referral of a Chamber case to the Grand Chamber when relevant’ (para. 38; para. 38 of the initial draft). As noted previously, one can question whether it is appropriate to ‘invite’ the Court to alter its own procedures, especially when the Court has not given its clear support to this. Moreover, the proposal was not amended to ensure that other stakeholders were given the same privilege to allow for a balanced mechanism, as was also suggested previously. A way to achieve this could be through opening up this mechanism by allowing ‘any person concerned who is not the applicant’ (cf. Article 36 (2) ECHR) to indicate their support for referral of a Chamber case to the Grand Chamber, as proposed by Lize Glas in this comment series. Once such support has been issued by a State Party or a person concerned, any State Party or any person concerned should also be able to indicate why a judgment should not be referred.

On a more positive note, just like the draft, the final Declaration underlines that the execution of judgments is a key obligation. Also, it encourages involvement of civil society in the dialogue on the implementation of the Convention. The value of this has been clearly explained in Antoine Buyse’s contribution to our comment series. In addition, the Declaration encourages both ‘the Court to support increased third-party interventions’ (para. 39) and the States Parties to ‘[build] the necessary capacity [to increase coordination and co-operation on third-party interventions] and [communicate] more systematically through the Government Agents Network on cases of potential interest for other States Parties’ (para. 40). The Copenhagen Declaration can thus be used as a foundation to further highlight the proper ways for States to engage in a dialogue with the Court via third party interventions, and invigorate this underused possibility.

The Court’s Resources

Perhaps the most important practical addition to the draft version is the express acknowledgement in the final Declaration of ‘the importance of retaining a sufficient budget for the Court, as well as the Department for the Execution of Judgments, to solve present and future challenges’ (para. 52) and the call made upon the States Parties to ‘consider making voluntary contributions to the Human Rights Trust Fund and to the Court’s special account’ (para. 53). Compared to the draft version, these invitations are both broader (the draft version only referred to the Court, not to the Execution Department, see para. 52) and more specific. Indeed, especially now that the Russian Government has withdrawn its financial contribution to the Council of Europe, lack of budget is one of the greatest threats to the continuing effectiveness of the Convention system. It is therefore certainly to be welcomed that this concern is now addressed. At the same time, the text of paras. 52 and 53 is very vague and weak. There are no guarantees that the Court’s and the Execution Department’s budgetary worries are over, especially considering that extra contributions only need to be made on a voluntary basis. 

The Outlook for the Future?

Overall, thus, it is obvious that the text of the final Copenhagen Declaration is very different from the draft version and it is far less problematic from the perspective of European protection of fundamental rights. There is great political value in this. To many States, the Copenhagen High Level Conference offered considerable opportunity to reaffirm their adherence to the Convention system and its underlying principles. Perhaps even more importantly, it showed that the Danish efforts to tone down the importance of the Convention system have backfired. If anything, the final Declaration exposes that the criticism of governments such as the Danish is not widely shared.


At the same time, at many points, the Declaration is still problematic or weak, and from a practical perspective, we could easily have done without the Declaration. Indeed, in our first blogpost in the series on the draft Declaration, we already explained that organising High Level Conferences seems to have grown into something like a ritual. These conferences always appear to result in declarations containing a cocktail of more or less the same ingredients. These declarations have had considerable impact in the beginning, but due to the lack of new ideas and ingredients, this is increasingly less so. The final Copenhagen Declaration seems to prove the truth of this analysis. All topics addressed in the Declaration can be found in earlier High Level Declarations and action plans, often even in more or less the same wording, and no really new or exciting solutions and ideas have been presented. Indeed, it makes clear that, if the aim really is to safeguard the long-term effectiveness of the ECHR system, it would have been more useful to invest the available time, energy, resources and political capital in actually implementing all action plans and recommendations previously adopted. It is just to be hoped that this will be the course pursued in the coming years.

Please note that the views expressed by Sarah Lambrecht here are personal to the author. This commentary was published earlier on Strasbourg Observers.

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

Training Seminar on Implementation of Strasbourg Judgments

The European Implementation Network is organising a training seminar in Strasbourg on 21-22 June on implementation of judgments of the European Court of Human Rights. The training course is specifically geared towards civil society organisations. The participation costs of those accepted will be borne by EIN. This is the information of the organisers:

'CSOs are accorded a critical role in the Council of Europe’s (CoE) process that underpins the supervision by the Committee of Ministers (CM) of the implementation of these judgments (known as the CM judgment execution process). This is made possible under Rule 9.2. of the Rules of the CM. However, there is little readily accessible information on how this process works and how CSOs can engage with it to best effect, with the result that this powerful mechanism for implementing human rights is very underutilised. 

The aims of the seminar are to equip CSOs to use the CM judgment execution process to support full and effective implementation of ECtHR judgments; and to share best practice on advocating for implementation at the national level.

Seminar content:

The seminar will cover the following issues:

  • The CM execution process and the role of NGOs.
  • How to use Rule 9.2 submissions to push for effective implementation at national level: case studies.
  • Rule 9.2 submissions: group exercises on developing general measures and/or responses to non-implementation. The session is aimed at helping participants who have not engaged with the CM judgment execution process to do so – gaining advice from other participants.
  • Advocacy: EIN and Strasbourg-based advocacy, advocating for improved implementation structures at the national level.

Training methodology:

The seminar will combine:

  • presentations by experts on how to engage effectively with the CM judgment execution process;
  • sharing of learning by participants who have already engaged with implementation, whether through the CM judgment execution process, or at the domestic level;
  • group exercises to help participants starting work on a new case to develop the content and recommendations they should include in their written submissions to the CM (i.e., Rule 9.2 submissions).  

Target audience:
Staff of civil society organisations working on, or planning to work on, implementation of ECtHR judgments; independent lawyers supporting civil society organisations in these activities.

Criteria for selection of participants:
Participants will be selected on the basis of following criteria:

The impact resulting from full and effective implementation of any cases their organisation is supporting.

Any relevant experience the participant is able to share. The training methodology requires a number of participants with particular attributes – some with experience in different aspects of implementation, others with cases which will be particularly suitable for group exercises.
Participants will be limited to one per CSO and are required to have a good working knowledge of English. They must be present for the full duration of the seminar.

Please note that EIN will be conducting further training seminars on an ongoing basis. Applicants not selected will be able to apply for a later seminar. CSOs that are supporting cases currently before the ECtHR should also consider applying for future EIN training seminars as and when their cases are settled.

Travel and accommodation expenses:
EIN will cover the costs of participants’ travel, accommodation, food and visas. Guidelines on the funding procedure will be provided to selected participants.

Application process:
Please complete the application form and return to Agnes Ciccarone (aciccarone at einnetwork.org) by 26 April 2018. Please also arrange for your organisation to send a letter supporting your application, confirming that you have a good working knowledge of English and can be present for the full duration of the seminar.

The results of the application review will be made know by mid-May.'

Monday, 16 April 2018

The Copenhagen Declaration on the ECHR - Final Version Adopted

Last week, the High Level Conference meeting under the Danish Chairpersonship of the Committee of Ministers took place in Copenhagen (12-13 April). The final text of the Copenhagen Declaration was adopted at that occasion. As readers of this blog will know, this was done after lots of diplomatic wrangling as well as online academic and expert debate. see the earlier comments series on the ECHR Blog. 

My initial thoughts are that the Declaration truly reads as a political compromise. Most of the much-criticised parts of earlier drafts have been left out in the end. The results is a smoothened text, with the hard edges polished away and not much new to show. Rather it reads as a summary of well-known developments and very general statements of the last few years. In a way, this very much echoes the earlier trajectory that led to the Brighton Declaration a few years ago. In that latter case, the United Kingdom, like Denmark currently, started out with a very critical agenda towards the Court and it was very much through external pressure of civil society and diplomatic efforts of other ECHR state parties that the final text also presented much less news than originally anticipated. One can only hope that these types of so obviously domestically-driven charges (e.g. concerns about migration cases) at the Court and subsequently mitigated by other key actors will not be the way ahead for the future. Although it does bring out various key discussion points and concerns, much effort gets put into wrangling about diplomatic texts rather than focusing on truly improved implementation at the national level - an aim virtually all high-level declarations in this context claim to strive for.

For initial commentaries, see also Ed Bates on UKStrabourgspotlight and Geir Ulfstein and Andreas Follesdal on EJILTalk! The ECHR Blog will publish a more extensive guest comment later on this week.

Thursday, 12 April 2018

Protocol 16 Enters into Force on 1 August 2018

It has taken a few years of patience, but this month the tenth ratification of Protocol 16 to the ECHR was made, by France. The Protocol to the European Convention, adopted in 2013, will enter into force on, 1 August of this year. The document, also known as the "dialogue Protocol", provides for the possibility of the highest national courts to ask the European Court for advisory opinions on "on questions of principle relating to the interpretation or application of the rights and freedoms defined in the Convention or the protocols thereto" in pending cases before them. In that sense, the new procedure resembles to a certain extent the preliminary ruling procedure of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

In spite of the potential added workload, the President of the Court, Guido Raimondi, is optimistic. He stated:

“The entry into force of Protocol No. 16 will strengthen dialogue between the European Convention on Human Rights and the national higher courts. This is a milestone in the history of the European Convention on Human Rights and a major step forward in human rights protection in Europe, as well as being a fresh challenge for our Court”.

Indeed, for the first time a direct, formalized procedural to-and-fro between the highest national courts and the Court in Strasbourg will become possible. For those ECHR state parties who have not (yet) shown keenness to ratify, the entry into force will provide an opportunity to see how the new Protocol will function in practice and to what extent it becomes beneficial in practices to national court procedures and thereby to a an increased embedding of the Convention in national judicial practice.

Meanwhile, Protocol 15, also from 2013, and relating to has not yet entered into force. This Protocol, which requires ratifications of all ECHR State Parties, is still awaiting action from four states: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Italy, and Spain. It relates mainly to some smaller procedural changes, as well as a heavier emphasis on margin of appreciation and subsidiarity.

Friday, 6 April 2018

New Book on Human Rights in CoE and EU

My Utrecht University colleague Janneke Gerards, together with Steven Greer and Rose Slowe of the University of Bristol, have just published a new book with Cambridge University Press, entitled Human Rights in the Council of Europe and the European Union. Achievements, Trends and Challenges. This is the abstract:

'Confusion about the differences between the Council of Europe (the parent body of the European Court of Human Rights) and the European Union is commonplace amongst the general public. It even affects some lawyers, jurists, social scientists and students. This book will enable the reader to distinguish clearly between those human rights norms which originate in the Council of Europe and those which derive from the EU, vital for anyone interested in human rights in Europe and in the UK as it prepares to leave the EU. The main achievements of relevant institutions include securing minimum standards across the continent as they deal with increasing expansion, complexity, multidimensionality, and interpenetration of their human rights activities. The authors also identify the central challenges, particularly for the UK in the post-Brexit era where the components of each system need to be carefully distinguished and disentangled.'

Congrats to the authors!

Tuesday, 27 March 2018

Book Review on Russia and the ECHR

It is my pleasure to introduce a guest post by Joyce Man, former legal intern at the European Human Rights Advocacy Centre (EHRAC), reviewing the book Russia and the European Court of Human Rights - The Strasbourg Effect by Mälksoo and Benedek: 


Book review: Russia and the European Court of Human Rights: The Strasbourg Effect (Cambridge University Press 2018) Lauri Mälksoo and Wolfgang Benedek (eds.)

Discussions on Russia’s membership of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) easily turn to its weaknesses. A new book, which examines whether the Convention has fostered human rights protection in Russia, raises significant reasons for concern, particularly in light of developments in the past three years. Nevertheless, some authors point to the positive influence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) on Russia, and vice versa. In spite of continuing tensions in their turbulent relationship, they manage to find a sliver of optimism.

Russia and the European Court of Human Rights (Cambridge University Press 2018) brings together fifteen practitioners and academics with expertise in human rights in Russia, who each reflect on developments on the twentieth anniversary of Russia’s accession to the ECHR. Drawing from their experiences in and out of the courtroom, as well as from sociological and historiographical perspectives, they paint a picture of a relationship which, while at times strained, has also been dynamic and positive.

The book comes at a time of deep scepticism and introspection about Russia’s commitment to the European human rights regime, and as a tense confrontation ensues among the Russian Duma, the Russian Constitutional Court (RCC), and the ECtHR about the supremacy of the Convention vis-à-vis the Russian Constitution. Russia also suspended payments to the Council of Europe (PACE) after its voting rights in the Parliamentary Assembly  were suspended following the its annexation of Crimea, adding to the tension. 

The saga began with the ECtHR’s 2014 decision awarding Yukos shareholders an unprecedented $1.86 billion for the state’s violation of the oil company’s right to fair trial in the state’s protracted tax evasion probe, which prompted Duma deputies to challenge the constitutionality of Russia’s ratification of the ECHR. In 2015, the RCC declined to rule the ratification unconstitutional. This led the Duma to legislate new powers for the RCC to declare ECtHR judgments impossible to implement. In 2016, the RCC deployed these powers in Anchugov and Gadkov, a case concerning prisoner voting rights, to find the ECtHR ruling in that case unenforceable. The confrontation continued on in 2017, with the RCC ruling the ECtHR’s Yukos award unenforceable. As the book went to print, tensions remained at an all-time high.

Russia and the European Court of Human Rights therefore provides a timely reflection and opportunity for stock-taking. From the very beginning of Russia’s membership of the Council of Europe (CoE) in 1998, human rights advocates have pinned great hopes on it for cultivating robust rights protections not only in Russia, but the former-Soviet region as a whole. The events of the past few years has thrown these hopes into doubt. However, as several authors show, the relationship between Moscow and Strasbourg was not always this confrontational.

In one contribution focusing on violations in Chechnya, Philip Leach, director of the European Human Rights Advocacy Centre (EHRAC), highlights cases which confirmed the practice of torture, deaths in custody, enforced disappearances, extrajudicial executions, deaths caused by aerial bombardment, artillery shelling, and armed attacks in Russia. They include EHRAC’s first successful cases, such as Khashiyev and Akayeva, concerning torture and extradjudicial execution in Grozny; Isayeva, on the indiscriminate bombing of civilians in Katyr-Yurt in 2000; and later, cases regarding redress for other victims in that attack in Abuyeva and ors and the need to address impunity in Abakarova. While ultimately compliance has been weak, these cases proved violations in an environment of impunity, and attested to the persistence of the claimants, their representatives and the Court – an achievement in itself.

The examples from EHRAC’s work also reveal the development of successful case law which could have implications for future litigation. They include those relating to the indiscriminate aerial bombing in Kogi village near Dagestan (Esmukhambetov and ors v Russia) and serious flaws in the authorities’ use of weaponry in Beslan school hostage-taking of 2004 (Tagayeva and ors v Russia).

A key area of success has been in property rights. As Vladislav Starzhenetskiy notes, following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, private parties were unable to enforce court orders for the state to perform obligations such as providing transport services, social welfare, and state-funded accommodation. The successful case of Burdov at the ECtHR led the authorities to spend over a decade reforming the enforcement mechanism and to find a solution. Similarly, ECtHR cases prompted the state to resolve the longstanding non-settlement of Soviet commodity bonds and to enact federal legislation for payment in exchange (Malysh and ors); to introduce stricter rules on extraordinary review procedures, which had undermined judgment debts (Panasenko); to amend counter-terrorism measures involving the destruction or damage of property (Gubiyev); and to improve property rights interferences in the course of criminal proceedings (Novikov).

Strasbourg case law has been used in Russia’s courts, as noted by Sergey Marochkin. To be sure, the RCC has taken a confrontational stance against Strasbourg since it ruled in July 2015 that it could determine the enforceability of ECtHR judgments. However, prior to that, the Constitutional Court had regularly quoted ECtHR judgments, referenced them for justification it its own reasoning, made persistent statements in support of observing its decisions, and for the most part, recognised them.

Interactions with Russia has also positively impacted the Strasbourg system, as Elisabet Fura and Rait Maruste observe. Cases involving Russia led, for example, to the creation of the European Prison Rules (Kalashnikov) and the further development of case law on discrimination (Markin). They highlighted the lack of legal assistance, a problem in many member states (Mikhaylova), and prompted debate on the right not to be tried twice for tax breaches, under administrative and criminal law, in Finland and Sweden (Zolotukhin). Even unsuccessful cases had positive impacts, such as the rare standalone application of Article 38 in Janowiec and ors v Russia regarding the Katyn massacre. As the authors note, this is the only known case where the Court has found a violation of Article 38 on its own; previously it was always in conjunction with Articles 2 or 3.

While the past two decades have been largely optimistic, more recent developments have thrown observers’ evaluations of the Russia-Strasbourg dynamic into doubt, writes Bill Bowring. The RCC’s decision on the ECtHR’s Yukos judgment and Anchugov and Gladkov have caused most of the writers to question Russia’s future engagement with Strasbourg. Russia’s record on LGBT rights and in Chechnya have worsened, and the country has adopted an increasingly nativist approach. Anton Burkov observes pessimistically that domestic courts often do not apply Strasbourg case law, not for a lack of knowledge or high case load, but more worryingly, a lack of motivation, political will and freedom.

For these reasons, Wolfgang Benedek, in summary, concludes that while socialisation through the ECHR system did have an impact, it slowed after 2007, and today, ‘the Strasbourg effect is dwindling’. The growing list of confrontational judgments is cause of ‘serious concern and undermines the socialisation process’.

All this begs the question of expectations and calls for reflections about what was possible given the complexities that Russia faced after the fall of the Soviet Union. From the perspective of the representatives who had a hand in bringing about Russia’s membership, the road was never going to be smooth. Stepping back to reflect on the historical trajectory, Petra Roter reminds us that the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights had acknowledged that Russia had not yet met the requirements of membership at the time of its entry. However, it believed that membership would create conditions of conformity, based on the idea that it was better to have Russia in than out. The long view shows that relations with the Council of Europe, while ‘troubled’, have been ‘notable’, and that Russia has participated meaningfully in many bodies and made an impact through its committed and skilled representatives. Likewise, Mikhail Antonov questions whether expectations were unrealistic to begin with; transplantation was always bound to be difficult. He is not so pessimistic about Russia’s interaction with the ECHR.

As the book went to print not long after the Yukos and Anchugov developments, most of the writers have refrained from concluding the worst, hoping – based on the positive experiences over a period of two decades – that the relationship can yet change.

Since the book’s publication, reports suggesting Russia may withdraw from the ECHR have persisted. Yet there are still ample reasons to believe that the relationship can weather the storm. First, officials have denied that withdrawal is on the agenda (including Federation Council speaker Valentina Matyienko in December 2017 and Duma vice-speaker Pyotr Tolstoy in March 2018). Second, leaving the ECHR is no mean feat, as demonstrated by the debate surrounding the UK’s own attempt to withdraw. It requires unravelling decades of intertwined jurisprudence and raises wider and deeper questions regarding treaty validity and compliance – in a nod to that point, the Russian Consitutional Court itself discussed the implications with regards the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties in the 2015 judgment (at page 14) and recent Anchugov and Gadkov ruling (paras 74-77). Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it should be noted that whatever the difference between Moscow and Strasbourg, Russia can still see the utility of the ECHR. As stated by Tolstoy, the Duma vice-speaker, they ‘consider it important to preserve a common legal space in Europe’. This leads the discussion back to the reason for the relationship in the first place. Twenty years ago, Russia found reason to join the ECHR. These included prestige, investment, the projection of an image as a rule-of-law abiding, ‘civilised state’, as noted by Lauri Mälksoo in the book. Perhaps idealistically, a desire to improve human rights protections could be added. Regardless what one thinks of those reasons, twenty years later, many of them continue to hold. The question is which ones, and for how long.